Research

Tissue Development
urrent attempts at in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs have their basis in knowledge gained from developmental cartilage formation and studies on cartilage homeostasis and function, and involve soluble factors, mechanical stimulation, and ECM components.
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Therapeutic Intervention
Articular cartilage is a highly specialized tissue that protects the bones of diarthrodial joints from forces associated with load bearing, friction and impact. Although a remarkably durable tissue, once articular cartilage is injured, it has very limited capacities for self-repair.
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Surgical Repair
Researcher(s):
Once OA has progressed to a point where pain management is no longer effective, surgical intervention is often employed.
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Stem Cells
Obtaining and using cells: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have the ability to differentiate into cells mesenchymal lineage including musculoskeletal tissues, have emerged as a candidate cell type with great potential for cell-based repair technologies.
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Scaffold Design
Making a scaffold: Given the lack of cell retention when cell suspensions are directly transplanted at the cartilage defect site, porous three-dimensional scaffolds are increasingly being used to facilitate cellular attachment while providing superior mechanical properties.
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Military and Civilian Applications
Histochemical analysis of traumatized muscle Mallory's trichrome staining differentiates between muscle fibers (deep red).
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Differentiation and Signaling
Growth factor stimulation: Soluble factors such as TGF-beta, BMP2, GDF5, and extracellular matrix molecules such as collagens, hyaluronic acid, isoforms of fibronection and COMP have been shown to promote chondrogenesis.
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Cartilage Degeneration
Researcher(s):
Pathogenesis: OA is the most common type of arthritis. It is estimated that 26.9 million Americans 25 years old or older have clinical OA of some joints, with a higher percentage of affliction in the older population.
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Biomechanical Stimulation
Tissues and organs that are developed in the lab must not only look like the tissue and organs they will replace, they must also function like them. Once cells are seeded onto scaffolds, mechanical stimulation can be used to...
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